Publications can be downloaded from Scribd, members can obtain citation and other information on these publications from CiteULike.

Late breaking publications can be found HERE.

Selected Publications by Category


  • Atamas, S. and J. Bell, Degeneracy-Driven Self-Structuring Dynamics in Selective Repertoires. Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, 2009. 71(6): p. 1349-1365.
  • Levin, S. and J. Lubchenco, Resilience, robustness, and marine ecosystem-based management. Bioscience, 2008. 58(1): p. 27-32.


  • Csermely, P., Weak links: Stabilizers of complex systems from proteins to social networks. 2006: Springer Verlag.
  • Whitacre, J.M. and A. Bender, Networked buffering: a basic mechanism for distributed robustness in complex adaptive systems. Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 2010. 7(20).

History and Philosophy

  • Mason, P.H., Degeneracy at Multiple Levels of Complexity. Biological Theory, 2010. 5(3): p. 277-288.

Systems Biology

  • Solé, R.V., R. Ferrer-Cancho, J.M. Montoya, and S. Valverde, Selection, tinkering, and emergence in complex networks. Complexity, 2002. 8(1): p. 20-33.
  • Csermely, P., Strong links are important, but weak links stabilize them. Trends in Biochemical Sciences, 2004. 29(7): p. 331-334.
  • Tieri, P., A. Grignolio, A. Zaikin, M. Mishto, D. Remondini, G.C. Castellani, and C. Franceschi, Network, degeneracy and bow tie integrating paradigms and architectures to grasp the complexity of the immune system. Theor Biol Med Model, 2010. 7: p. 32.


  • Edelman, G.M. and J.A. Gally, Degeneracy and complexity in biological systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 2001. 98(24): p. 13763-13768.
  • Whitacre, J.M., Degeneracy: a link between evolvability, robustness and complexity in biological systems. Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling, 2010. 7(6).
  • Whitacre, J. and A. Bender, Degeneracy: a design principle for achieving robustness and evolvability. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 2010. 263(1): p. 143-53.


  • Cohn, M., Degeneracy, mimicry and crossreactivity in immune recognition. Molecular immunology, 2005. 42(5): p. 651-655.
  • Cohen, I.R., U. Hershberg, and S. Solomon, Antigen-receptor degeneracy and immunological paradigms. Molecular immunology, 2004. 40(14-15): p. 993-996.
  • Tieri, P., G.C. Castellani, D. Remondini, S. Valensin, J. Loroni, S. Salvioli, and C. Franceschi, Capturing degeneracy of the immune system. In Silico Immunology. Springer, 2007.

Artificial Life, Computational Intelligence

  • Andrews, P.S. and J. Timmis, A Computational Model of Degeneracy in a Lymph Node. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2006. 4163: p. 164.
  • Mendao, M., J. Timmis, P.S. Andrews, and M. Davies. The Immune System in Pieces: Computational Lessons from Degeneracy in the Immune System. in Foundations of Computational Intelligence (FOCI). 2007.
  • Whitacre, J.M. and A. Bender. Degenerate neutrality creates evolvable fitness landscapes. in WorldComp-2009. 2009. Las Vegas, Nevada, USA.
  • Whitacre, J.M., P. Rohlfshagen, X. Yao, and A. Bender. The role of degenerate robustness in the evolvability of multi-agent systems in dynamic environments. in PPSN XI. 2010. Krakow, Poland.
  • Macia, J. and R. Solé, Distributed robustness in cellular networks: insights from synthetic evolved circuits. Royal Society Interface, 2009 6: p. 393-400.

Systems Engineering

  • Whitacre, J. M., Rohlfshagen, P., Bender, A, and  Yao, X.  “Evolutionary Mechanics: new engineering principles for the emergence of flexibility in a dynamic and uncertain world,” Journal of Natural Computing (in press)
  • Sussman, G., Building Robust Systems an essay. 2007, Citeseer.


  • Kupiec, J.J., On the lack of specificity of proteins and its consequences for a theory of biological organization. Progress in biophysics and molecular biology, 2010. 102(1): p. 45-52.


  • Price, C. and K. Friston, Degeneracy and cognitive anatomy. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 2002. 6(10): p. 416-421.
  • Tononi, G., O. Sporns, and G.M. Edelman, Measures of degeneracy and redundancy in biological networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 1999. 96(6): p. 3257-3262.
  • Sporns, O., G. Tononi, and G. Edelman, Connectivity and complexity: the relationship between neuroanatomy and brain dynamics. Neural Networks, 2000. 13(8-9): p. 909-922.


  • Tian, T., S. Olson, J.M. Whitacre, and A. Harding, The origins of cancer robustness and evolvability. Integrative Biology, 2011. 3: p. 17-30.

Peer Review

  • Lehky, S., Peer Evaluation and Selection Systems: Adaptation and Maladaptation of Individuals and Groups through Peer Review. 2011: BioBitField Press.
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